OVER the Easter break St John Ambulance is urging people to learn vital first aid which could prevent a trip to A&E…and might even save lives.

Key tips to help keep you and your loved ones safe:

Choking (adult and child)

What to do: www.youtube.com/watch?v=PA9hpOnvtCk&feature=emb_title

1. Cough it out Encourage the casualty to keep coughing

2. Slap it out Give 5 sharp back blows between the shoulder blades. Check their mouth each time

3. Squeeze it out Give 5 abdominal thrusts. Check their mouth each time

4. Call 999/112 for emergency help. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until help arrives.


What to do: www.youtube.com/watch?v=oswDpwzbAV8&feature=emb_title

1. Slap it out Lay the baby face down along your thigh and support their head. Give 5 back blows between their shoulder blades. Turn them over and check their mouth each time

2. Squeeze it out Using two fingers, give 5 sharp chest thrusts. Check the mouth each time

3. If the item does not dislodge, call 999/112. Take the baby with you to call. Repeat the steps 1 and 2 until help arrives.

Minor burns and scalds

1. Hold burn under cool running water for at least 20 minutes

2. Remove clothing or jewellery around the burn, unless stuck to the burn

3. Cover lengthways with cling film

4. Monitor casualty and seek medical advice.

Alcohol poisoning

1. Reassure them, keep them warm

2. Check for injuries

3. Place in the recovery position

4. Monitor level of response. If worried call 999 or 112 for emergency help

Cardiac arrest (adult)

Call 999 or 112 for emergency help and start CPR, using a defibrillator if available.

How to do CPR: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BQNNOh8c8ks&feature=emb_title

1. Call 999/112 for emergency help. Do not leave them. If someone is with you, ask them to fetch a defibrillator if they know where the nearest one can be found. If you are on your own, do not leave the patient. Because of COVID-19, before you start CPR, use a towel or piece of clothing and lay it over the mouth and nose of the casualty

2. Start CPR. Kneel by the casualty and put the heel of your hand in the middle of their chest, put your other hand on top of the first. Interlock your fingers making sure they don't touch the ribs. Keep your arms straight and lean over the casualty. Press down hard, to a depth of about 5-6cm before releasing the pressure, allowing the chest to come back up. The beat of the song ‘Staying Alive’ can help you keep the right rate

3. If a defibrillator is available. Ask a helper to switch on the defibrillator and apply pads while you continue CPR. Follow the voice prompts given by the defibrillator. Stand back when shock is advised . Wherever possible, the helper should keep their distance

4. If they become responsive. Put them in the recovery position. Leave the defibrillator pads attached. Monitor level of response.

The recovery position

What to do: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmqXqwSV3bo&feature=emb_title

1. Place their nearest arm at a right angle to their body with the elbow bent

2. Place the back of their far hand against their cheek. Hold it there

3. Pull the far knee up until their foot is flat

4. Pull on the bent leg to roll them towards you

5. Tilt their head back to open airway

6. Call 999/112 for emergency help. Monitor their level of response.

Cuts and grazes

What to do: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4e7evinsfm0&feature=emb_title

1. If the wound is dirty, clean the wound with cold running water or alcohol-free wipes

2. Pat it dry

3. Raise and support the injury

4. Apply a sterile adhesive dressing.

Severe bleeding

What to do: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NxO5LvgqZe0&feature=emb_title

1. Apply direct pressure to the wound

2. Call 999/112 for emergency help

3. Secure dressing with a bandage to maintain pressure

4. Treat for shock

5. Support the injury

In the case of an emergency always call 999. For quick, easily accessible first aid information, the St John Ambulance app is available free on smartphones or visit www.sja.org.uk